PATCHING IS BEST WAY FOR

AMBLYOPIA

ANKIT MISHRA
(M.Optom) Assistant Professor
School of Optometry Sitapur Eye Hospital.
Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh

One of the most common topics discussed in the realm of paediatrics and binocular vision is amblyopia. Amblyopia is a visual disorder in which a lack of proper visual input during development impairs the visual pathway, resulting in decreased visual acuity. When it comes to treating amblyopia, very often, there is a controversial discussion pertaining to patching.

Patching is a method of amblyopia treatment in which the “stronger” eye is patched so that the “weaker” eye is forced to break any suppression and use its visual pathway. The idea is that patching works on the neuroplasticity of the brain in order to create new neural connections and retrain the visual system to use both eyes equally. Patching is still used by many eye doctors today; however, many also try their best to avoid it.

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Additional findings:

  • When the VA in the amblyopia eye stops improving with 2 hours of patching, increase the hours of patching to 6 hours for children aged 3 to 7.
  • For children aged 7-12, prescribing patching can improve VA even if amblyopia has been previously treated.
  • For older children aged 13-17, prescribing patching can improve VA when amblyopia has NOT been previously treated.
  • Performing near activities does not improve VA when treating amblyopia with patching. Other visual functions were not studied, thus the benefit of near activities on other visual functions including accommodation, pursuit, saccades, and eye and hand coordination are unknown.

Glasses alone can improve amblyopia. The first line of treatment is prescribing a spectacle prescription if warranted. The studies have found that optimal spectacles can lead to improvements in vision in children with anisometropic amblyopia, strabismic amblyopia, bilateral refractive amblyopia, and combined mechanism amblyopia, and these improvements are more significant if the children are younger or have better baseline VA.

Additional treatment with patching, atropine, or a Bangerter filter can then be initiated if amblyopia persists. Before the ATS studies, there was no consensus about the number of hours amblyopic patients should be patched and full time occlusion was often recommended. There was also no consensus on the dosage of atropine, and its efficacy compared to patching. The ATS studies have found that both patching and atropine are effective treatments for amblyopia, and provide us with recommendations for treatment based on amblyopia severity and patient age. PEDIG has defined amblyopia as mild (20/30 or better), moderate (20/40-20/80), and severe (20/100-20/400).

Hours of patching recommended for children ages 3-7:

  • Moderate amblyopia: patch 2 hours a day (similar in efficacy to patching 6 hours a day)
  • Severe amblyopia: patch 6 hours a day (similar in efficacy to full time patching); may respond to 2 hours a day

Dosing of atropine recommended for children ages 3-12:

  • Moderate amblyopia: weekend atropine (similar in efficacy to daily atropine)
  • There is a risk of recurrence of amblyopia after stopping treatment with patching or atropine, especially within the first three months. Recurrence risk is low when 2 hours of patching is stopped, and is more common when patching is not tapered from 6 or more hours. Thus patients should be tapered to 2 hours before stopping treatment.

A good understanding of the research is crucial to providing the best care for your amblyopic patients. Treatment is dependent on many factors such as the severity of amblyopia, age of the patient, and parental and patient motivation. Early intervention is key! Know when to treat and if you don’t feel comfortable, refer to an OD who does.

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